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Sunday, November 29, 2009

Tea cultivation in India - Kerala


Tourism in Kerala, with Kerala Backwater Kerala as you visit hill ranges of Western Ghats, you most tea gardens in Munnar in India and some will get around. Tea gardens and tea cultivation in colonial times by British settlers of Kerala were introduced, when he found that temperature and hill ranges of Kerala's land suitable for cultivation of tea were the conditions. India is today the world's largest tea producer and exporter.


Green tea bushes of tea gardens in Kerala gentle hill slopes and hills on the surface of the green mantle forma as cover is a beautiful scene. Some tea gardens also provide accommodation to tourists on Kerala Tourism, who like to stay close to nature in a quiet getaway and a wildlife and agricultural plantations will follow the traditional routine. Plantation as a modern facility equipped to making your stay as possible, with Kerala Backwater Tourism Kerala easy. Tea gardens of Kerala, a pleasant calm of Kerala with Kerala Backwater tourism is eco-tourism options.


A tea plantation in Kerala live in lodges and houses with Kerala Tourism and Environment, Kerala Backwater Tourism Holidays in plantations. The process of harvesting and processing tea look, go for nature treks and Kerala's tea with tea gardens of Kerala Tourism, Kerala Backwater property at rest in a pleasant atmosphere.


Tea cultivation in Kerala:


Tea plant (camellia sinensis) in India during the British colonial period was introduced. Bush ends with a shiny green leaves and a pleasant smell. Take a deep breath as you walk through tea gardens in Kerala and the smell of tea you think you can invigorate.


Tea bushes will grow in the wild tree height. At waist height bushes maintained tea gardens but then leaves can be plucked easily. Tea picking is out of hand, usually by groups of women. Only one bud and shoot his agile fingers pick the first two cards and put them in a basket hanging behind his back room. Women as they sing often to help them maintain a rhythm as they go through with lines of tea bushes are working. After the break, and processed tea leaves based on fermentations and other processing treatment categories are resolved. Three broad classifications of tea are - Green tea, Oolong tea and black tea.


Tea bushes are on other plants besides the tea gardens black pepper, cardamom, cashews, and betel nuts are included. Big tree tea bushes shade shelter for their fruit is harvested. You look up the process of tea and tea plantations in Kerala processing, while on tours with Kerala Backwater Kerala Nature can view.

History of tea cultivation


Tea drinking began in China and Chinese Tea Fukien dialect word is derived from the t'e. Dutch introduced it to Europe. In Cantonese, Ch'a known as tea and drink it for this unique name by which Japan, India, Russia, Iran and the Middle East is known. Before an ancient Chinese tea authentic reference Ku P'o, 350 E. Revised by celebrated Chinese scholar was built in dictionary. That time was done by boiling a medicinal herb tea decoction. Tea as a drink near the sixth century to use from the beginning. During a successful two centuries tea gained huge popularity.


The first book on tea, unique, Ch'a Ching 'means tea, Chinese tea expert Classic by Lu Yu "published in 780 AD in which he describes various types of tea, their cultivation and production in China. However, apart from Japan, tea drinking until about the mid-seventeenth century, spread to other parts of the world did not come. Opening a sea route to India and East Europe in 1497 by Portuguese and Oriental countries, trade between the large-scale help. Other European countries soon to set up business in various countries of the former Portuguese followed. The Dutch established a similar depot in Java. They bought tea from Japan and in Europe in 1610 the first batch of Java was transhipped. Between Europe and Asia for the lucrative tea trade began. Dutch end more than a century for the British to produce business is all about tea. China tea to Europe by the middle of the nineteenth century was the only supplier. Tea in Europe continent between the affluent classes in his first start 50 years obtained a strong foothold. In another 100 years, a large part of the Europe and the UK has become one of daily use objects. Tea also became popular in the U.S. who was then a British colony.

Assam tea plant Discovery

Robert Bruce discovered the tea plant in Assam blamed, which has seen some hills near Rangpur plant (near the present Sibsagar) growing in the wild, then capital of Assam during his visit in 1823, on a trade mission Ukers (is considered, the A, 1935, all tea. Vol I Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Company, New York about). A Singphow (a tribe) signed an agreement with the chief supply of tea plants during his next visit, though his death was not put into practice because of. Instead, his brother, CA Bruce, the British occupied Burma in 1824 on charges of Gunboat Division at war with Assam and Sadia posted on tea plants and seeds Singphow Chief what he called supplies. Most of these seeds are planted in Sadia Bruce garden and was sent to Guwahati Commissioner Jenkins. Some of these plants for cards sent in Calcutta Botanical Garden. Dr. N. Wallich, who as superintendent of the Botanical Garden was identified related to the camellia family, but consider them as China tea plant leaves as a single species.


In 1834, India's Governor General Lord William Bentinck in India, a tea committee appointed advise on the feasibility of commercial cultivation of tea. Committee for information about areas asking a circular issued suitable for cultivation of tea and sent his secretary, Mr. G. J. Gordon, tea seeds, plants and purchase of workers from China. In response to circular, Assam, Major F. Jenkins Commissioner, Assam tea cultivation in favor of making a strong case where the tea plants were growing wild in the woods. He also collected local plants and the Botanical Garden all samples sent to them in Calcutta. On this occasion, as Dr. Wallich tea samples had no difficulty in identifying, and plants were not different from the China tea plant. The tea committee has recommended that under proper management, indigenous plants for commercial purposes are cultivated with complete success.

In 1835, a scientist with Dr. N. Wallich Commission was set up, Dr. W. Griffith and Dr. J. indigenous tea plants on the McClelland report and tea gardens to begin experimental advice on the most favorable settlements. Scientific Commission visited Assam in early 1836. Mr. C.A. Bruce, acting as guides, Naga Hills and the foot part Patkai with many members away for a few river valleys, where the indigenous tea plant was growing in clumps. To believe that there are no tea bushes Dr. Wallich was not any more need for imported tea seeds from China have seen expressed, while imports of seed has endorsed Mr. Griffith China because of the possibility of a wild plant not as good as the produce that has been cultivated for centuries. In the end it decided that China and not used for plant use degraded Assam government should plant. Commission to establish a common experimental gardens in the most favorable localities could come to agreement. Himalayan region have supported Dr. Wallich, while the other two sides of upper Assam where the existence of wild tea. So Mr. Gordon was sent back to China in 1836 and for many years in India, China tea was imported seeds regularly. The seed, the Botanical Garden nursery plants in Upper Assam and raised in Calcutta, Dehradun Doon, was sent in Kumaon and Nilgiri hills. Experimental Saikhowa near Sadiya in Upper Assam site was not appropriate, where many plants died. About 25 kilometers Dibrugarh plants alive before a new site near Chabua been moved. Himalayan region, were planted tea seedlings Bhimtal and Almora near. Afterwards, Park successfully applied at the bottom of the Kumaon Himalayas, Garhwal and Kangra district were established with China plant.


Plants in the South sent a survivor of the Nilgiris and the Western coast Wynaad very small. Besides plants and seeds to China, CA establishment of experimental plots of tea with Bruce in which the Government had appointed as superintendent of tea gardens, native plant nursery raised tea. He also in Upper Assam's Sadiya Gabru Purbat to detect a large portion of the area and forests in search of several areas of tea. Some of these tea approved in part and with the help of workers collected from bushes brought from China were built with used cards. The first indigenous plant tea was sent to Calcutta in 1836 experimental samples. Sample favorable comments, whereupon eight chests of Assam tea to London in 1838 sent an invoice, which was auctioned received January 10, 1839. This is an important occasion because it was not only able to establish Assam tea plants, but cultivation of tea around the world set the future course. Today, more tea from China have made way more kinds of plants in Assam

Mr. C.A. Bruce discovered the plant in Assam Tea for his contribution to English society of art medals, through Agriculture and Horticulture Society of Bengal was presented, was honored. The controversial decision and Major and Captain Jenkins Charlton staked their claims to respect. But in the end both of them hostile correspondence one of agricultural and horticultural society of Bengal won. The only person who did not get any award that Robert Bruce plant was considered the true discoverer. Assam, some sources in Calcutta (Baildon, 1877, according to tea) of tea plants from Assam, a local Assamese Thakur Maniram Dewan, who later worked for a while Assam Company was discovered. It is possible that during his visit to Rangpur Maniram Dewan Robert Bruce reported for the plant is used in 1823. Outside world to bring to the notice of local plants can not ignore the role of Assam in Singphow ST. It was again a main Singphow the tea plants and seeds for CA Bruce supply. Another Singphow main tea, 130 chests of 35 prepared by the CA sent to Calcutta in 1841 Bruce. This clearly shows that must have been familiar with and make Singphows plant and drinking tea from antiquity.

Saturday, November 28, 2009

Development of Hybrid Rice in India


During the last few years in tropical, hybrid rice technology, India, Vietnam, Philippines, Bangladesh and Indonesia entered the commercialization phase. Research to develop hybrid rice in the 1970s had started in India way back, but with no success. It was in the year 1989, research programs and rapid pace, and 5-year period, half a dozen rice varieties, hybrid rice in India has been developed within public and private sectors. At the end of 2001, a total of 19 hybrid rice varieties were released by.



However, adoption of hybrid rice farmers have been very slow because of several obstacles than expected. Grain and cooking quality characteristics of hybrids, including some major pests and diseases resistance, to increase the average yield on a large scale seed improvement research priorities to reduce seed cost. Policy support for increased government intervention, aggressive popularization of hybrids, and assured a minimum support price requires the purchase of hybrid rice. If these problems can be solved, hybrid rice in India during the next decade at 3-4 million hectares of land for cultivation can be partly to maintain food security. Government on a priority basis during the Tenth Five Year Plan period, hybrid popular (2002-07) is intended.

  • Steps to develop hybrid rice

  • Use the new seed every season and follow the recommended rates

  • Raise healthy seedlings

  • Land ready soon and properly

  • Transplant seedlings empty hills charged


  • Right kind and amount of fertilizer applied at the right time

  • Keep the right amount of water Pest Manage Harvest time

Cultivation of rice in India


Rice cultivation is no way for all localities. This is quite different in different areas. However, most Asian countries like India, however, traditional methods of rice cultivation and hand harvesting is still practiced. Fields are ready Plowing (typically with simple plows built by buffalo) Fertilizing (usually with dung or sewage), and reboot (by dragging a record). From 30 to 50 beds in its infancy and for seedlings and started a few days later, and farms, which received a shower of rain or river water were taken from the hand.

During the growing season, irrigation is to maintain in some areas. Fields and allows the brain before cutting. It still is known as brown rice hull is covered by rice fields or rice fields, called fields. Before marketing, and inevitably loose rice hulls - are Pete will present and ongoing, or from newspaper or straw mats on open air by tossing winnowed working in a mortar.


Step analysis of rice cultivation in India

  • Climate suiting rice cropping

  • Season for rice cultivation in India
  • Rice land for rice crop cultivation

  • Rice eco-system

  • Rice seed pattern for Rice crop in India

  • Rice cultivation methods in India

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Agriculture & Rural Developments


Crop


Seventies was a time of growth indicates that the Green Revolution in wheat production. In the next 10 years, rice production increased rapidly in 1995-96, rice production was 79.6 million tonnes. Total food production success in 1994-95, was 510,000 1950 -51 tonnes a big leap. Seventh Five Year Plan period average food production 155 million tonnes, 17 million tonnes more than the sixth five year plan was average.

In order for farmers to complete the technical reform, the National Pulse Development Plan, covering 13 countries, was launched in 1986. Special food production program to improve further efforts to increase pulse production. In 1995-96, 13.2 million tonnes produced pulse. Some countries with more statutory minimum price of sugarcane production also has been noted and a record 2.83 million tonnes recorded in 1995-96.


Irrigation


As the country's irrigation potential for continuing growth in the last 40 years efforts, for a total of 800 million hectares of irrigated area . Flood forecasting for many years has become an important activity. More than 500 stations and 400 radio stations through the water collecting data from 157 sites for transmitting is predicted to continue. 94% accuracy in predicting published in 5000 years. Country received international support, water resources in developing countries as a major source with the World Bank.

International cooperation on water and electricity set up a National Information Center envisages. For a comprehensive view in this country especially with the Himalayan region and port area of Maharashtra Qazi, has developed a plan to collect all data on a separate dam seismic activity.


Fertilizer


Fertilizer industry in India, strong growth in the last 30 years. To see the many fertilizers farmers in remote areas and hilly regions want to reach. What price, distribution and movement of phosphates and potash decided to decontrol. What's for steps taken to ensure that non-supply growth - chemical fertilizers on reasonable price. Fertilizer quality control laboratories in 53 countries. As bio-chemical fertilizers - one idea, cheap and renewable sources of effective additional fertilizer, the national project development and use of bio - fertilizer is applied. One national and six training scheme, organization, demonstration projects and regional centers for testing the quality of bio - fertilizer has been adopted.

This one is challenging the government decision, a 1,700 kilometer gas pipeline through the Bombay High has adopted, feed, consumption of chemical fertilizer plant is located in central northern India. However, the main policies to ensure fertilizer industry growth rate of consumption of fertilizers is certain key, on one hand, lower prices on other manufacturers, uniform fertilizer, adequate compensation is provided through the retention price scheme. As expected, fertilizer nutrients increased from 1961 to 1960 tonnes from 0.29 million to 13.9 million tonnes in 1992-93 compared to the end of 1995-96 demand 12.15MT.


Fishing


A record 4.9 million tonnes of fish production, has reached the end of 1995-96. Program helped increase production, the National Development Plan, fish seeds, fish and salt water fish farmers development agencies, development agencies, including farmers. Central Fisheries Research Institute and marine engineering training necessary manpower training. Fishing methods in order, processed fish products introduced, semi-commercial scale, integrated fisheries project has already begun to disperse. A National Fisheries Advisory Committee has been established.


Food Resources


A Ministry of Food Processing Industries in July 1988 for the establishment to ensure better use of modern technology, farmers' production of processed foods, which increase the income of farmers to participate and create jobs in rural areas is was. A new seed policy of quality seeds and plant materials, vegetables, fruits, flowers, oilseeds and pulses has been through provision of access, without any weak quarantine situation. Private sector investment in food processing industry to get promoted action taken.


Agricultural Research


Education, research and education, the apex body in the expansion, agriculture, Indian Agricultural Research (ICAR), the Council is established in 1929. India's innings from additional countries, lack of grains, especially agricultural technology from the lab for smooth and rapid transfer of land due to the recovery of assets of the International Center. To fulfill its responsibilities international asset recovery center for 43 Research Institutes, 4 National Research Council, 20 National Research Center, Program Executive Office 9, through All India Coordinated Research projects 70, 109 and Agricultural Science Center (Agricultural Science Center ). In addition, international agricultural education center and property improvement plan and other standard program guide, 26 agricultural universities and national research institutions to coordinate is 4.


Oilseed Production


In 1986, a Technology Mission on Oilseeds Production of oilseeds in the country for achieving growth and self - started abundance. 1990 in science and technology delegation in legumes are included. 10.83 lakh tonnes of oilseeds production Mission 85-86 before beginning, in 1995-96, 22.42 lakh tonnes, which is estimated at a record. Soybean, rapeseed and mustard mainly due to increased production. The production of pulses went through many twists and goes into the mission is expected to have. Development of the country mainly nine oilseeds, and peanuts, rapeseed and mustard production of 62% for total scores. Recently, soybean and sunflower has great growth potential.


Water


One on drinking water technology and related water management for the Mission has been formed in rural areas cover the remaining issues and 70 liters per person per day, per person per day from 40 liters 30 liters of drinking water in desert areas, including cattle provide for. Mission is to solve this problem, a small work in 55 project areas and the problem of cross-country sub-task oriented. A village level operation and maintenance (VLOM) pump called India Mark - 11 have been developed and exported to 40 countries. Rural and urban population 85% March 31, 1993 from 79% to provide more facilities for drinking water.

Agricultural Sector of Indian Economy


India's economy the most important part of India's agricultural world. In India, the agricultural working class, the only means left about two thirds. Financial year 2006-07 as economic data, it was stated that 18 percent agriculture, India's Gross Domestic Product was 43 percent, about India's geographical area to capture.


Agricultural sector remains the largest contribution, and only India's gross domestic product declined, and even after agriculture in India. In agriculture, the economic sector plays an important role in social development in India.


For the first time India's economy, agriculture, continuous coverage, India's food production, he had himself so dependent on imported food for. Adequate reserves for the same country,. India's agricultural sector depends to a great extent, especially in the food crisis in food production units, in 1960. India and India is not enough, a lot of effort in food production since the green revolution led this effort. Green Revolution, aimed to improving agriculture in India is reflected will begin.


Green Revolution for India's agricultural economy as follows:


  • To achieve these objectives in the agricultural sector

  • Irrigation facilities, extension

  • And more advanced, more high-quality seeds, crop use

  • Better technology, found Agricultural Research

  • Execute Water management

  • Plan fertilizer, pesticide safety activities through rational use, crop application


Green Revolution wheat and rice all production in India, agricultural measures taken by a worrisome increase. Wheat and rice cultivation in India, the pulse of a country development plan, about 13 countries in 1986 saw a jump in manufacturing unit, keep in mind the target of covering the amount of technology for farmers to improve. A Technology Mission in 1986, once the national development plan launched by the Indian economy after the success of Pulse oil sector's progress. Beans are covered under the scheme. A new seed policy and better quality seeds, fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, plant material as the original plan identifies pulses and flowers.


Provincial Food Processing Industries, Government of India and to establish and promote the agricultural economy more attractive. India's agricultural sector very heavy rainfall during the monsoon season, by time, a good crop. But this year the weather can not depend on agriculture could be. Account for the fact that a second Green Revolution to restore the ban is expected to form. Growth rate and better management of irrigation water increased, the soil quality and high value products, fruits, vegetables, herbs, flowers, medicinal plants and development of a wide range of bio-diesel in the list of services, India The Green Revolution in agriculture reform is determined by improvement.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

DECOUPLING: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW

Word decoupling has been used widely in both academic literature and the last one decade during between agricultural policy makers. But this solution is that the relative prices of time do not affect the meaning or produce agricultural commodities were of inputs. For policy makers and those involved in trade negotiations for agriculture in particular, often refers to the impact of decoupling one measure or set of measures, more specifically, a policy decoupled if it is not or only very little impact on production and trade. To be or not policies used by policy makers as decoupling concept of production and trade will provide modest impact departure point. By the discovery of different mechanisms - price and non price, static and dynamic - through which policies affect production and trade to make, this will analyze the word beyond more stringent economic meaning effort to discuss the impact static relative price uncertainty and to include longerterm dynamic effects.

Although decoupling did not use the word, was built in 1987 OECD Ministerial Releases OECD countries committed to the improvement of agricultural policy the long-term objective is to influence the process through market signals to allow a progressive and substantial reduction in support agriculture as well as in all other appropriate means, orientation of agricultural production. It used to, however, was directly OECD Agriculture Ministers Releases 1998 when, for a set of agreed criteria operations, they policy measures should be ... Confirmed ... targeted and specific results as possible decoupled away.

Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA), the sign of the country stated as its domestic support agreed to reduce compromise. However. Allows for exceptions to this commitment measures which conform to standards set out in Annex II. These measures (so-called green boxsupport is excluded from gross measures (AIIMS) and not for, or at least is the most important trade - distorting effects on production impact or. More specific criteria applicable to a wide range of different policy measures described in the attachment.

Actually, the word URAA text is applied to only one decoupled specific policy classes, ie income support decoupled. However, decoupling clean, or more lower embedded in the idea, trade - distorting effects or effects on production. Since the business of production and consumption be equal to 1, the difference between one fully either decoupled policy should not affect production or consumption decisions. This is why agricultural support policies decoupling is an issue for third countries and multilateral negotiations has become an issue. Theoretically, a business one fully decoupled policy have spread across the country should overs limit (few, if any, policies that in practice at all, although there are no effect on production or business). Policies that are completely decoupled countries over trade has spread, a countrys concern about another countrys policy Decoupling the issue of least least three dimensions are relevant:

- including a theoretical way to understand the agricultural policies dimensions affect potential production and trade.

- An empirical measure for the size of production and related dimensions impact of various trade policies. Production and trade of most empirical study only theoretical part focused on the impact of policies .

- Define a regulator to best practice policies or policy with the objective dimension the decoupled design packages.

Much effort already has been spent in search of these dimensions both directly and indirectly in OECD and elsewhere. Recent reclassification Producer Support Estimate (PSE) measures according to how the criteria for implementation more information about the policies needed for their production and trade shows a condition for the analysis of is implemented as effect. The pilot project is further empirical investigation and PEM production, consumption and trade efforts to quantify the relative price impact dimension through a series of specific measures the impact of a series PSU components caused by changes (OECD, 1999a). Much regulatory or best practicein the body of work with the objective dimension is introduced . Studies on the direct payments (OECD, 1994) is included, which, general criteria for direct payments is defined at least Besides production and trade effects, it is good practice for aimed at specific purposes identified design of payment. These were ,

(a) environmental performance,
(b) the minimum income support
(c) offsetting price and income volatility and
(d) to promote structural adjustment .

In addition, currently running several projects in the context of the 1999-2000 work program clearly relevant to common questions of decoupling. A study in agricultural environment, particularly measures that distort trade to the minimum standards in the Work multifunctionality, the policy effects of joint production relationships, when they are present, (OECD, 2001a) are analyzed. Further analysis of the notion clearly decoupling is important in terms of annual monitoring and evaluation exercises the development and evaluation in support against the trade policies and standards in the domestic - and particularly the market orientation, Targeting - theories arising from the various Ministerial agricultural policy reform.

To date, however, is extensive theoretical neglected dimension. So the first shot up and down the present aim to strengthen and complement other research efforts have already begun to do. agricultural policies has become more complex as, there is some relative prices affect outputs in the public sector, namely (steps away from the words movement away from market price support). As a result, it has become important production and trade identify all potential sources clear agricultural policies motivated by the decoupling effect.

Decoupling effects of the analysis focus on the production of Policy tools or policy packages focused . Welfare for the purpose of analysis is not possible implications.2 source of many potential loss or profit associated with agricultural policy package, including loss anyway when inefficient production, has maintained the policy implementation to transaction costs, externalities.4 benefit from taxes3 and potential production and trade related costs not we focus our attention on the effects of policies on associated welfare effects. Interestingly, these issues are dealt with OECD and other is in progress, but which are still beyond the scope of this paper . And generally, the paper check is not normal economic distortions. The objective is looking at policy measures only the angle their agricultural production and trade effects.

Correctly analyzed the concept of decoupling, policies already in place be borne in mind should be. Despite reforms some countries agricultural policies, OECD estimated 68% of cooperation by the producer countries in 1999 as market price support (OECD, 2000b) was, 78% below 1986 at -88. PSU as per OECD was completed in one 40% (OECD, 2000b). These member countries, despite the vast gap between the world market statistics are significantly distorted agricultural policy measures . Therefore, the impact of any policy changes should be analyzed in one context already many who believe that the status quo, current policies affecting.

Held in this paper such as is. Definition of appropriate is examined in section decoupling 2. Impact of production and trade with certainly in a stable world policies studied in Section 3 and Section 4 are, production focus is placed on the effects of trade policies and presence of risk . Dynamic effects on production and trade are considered . Relative impact on production and trade studies in a stable price structure , remain in effect when the risks are selling or dynamic analysis. That is, cumulative effects, and these channels are not optional .

Risk Management in Agriculture: A Holistic Approach

Many and varied sources of risk in agriculture are produced by a farmer, any decision should take into account the many uncertainties. Various strategies can be developed and markets equipment and, however, and in this context that the OECD project on risk management in agriculture is a potential action and government policy analysis is demanded.

Why a holistic approach to risk management in agriculture?

Conceptual framework and fully released by the OECDs goal three main points: the risk is based on the type, farmers strategies and government policies. Any analysis and policy advice focus on the relations:

  • Individual farmers risk should source / farm level are not independent.
  • Risk management is part of a strategy, account management strategy in agriculture, and agricultural production, finance and manufacturing sectors and decide on market instruments (futures, insurance, contracts ...) use, such as use only well affected, including all types, government programs and policies.
  • Risk characteristics, such as frequency and type of severity of injury, they farm level (layer normal risk) or the necessary equipment market (market, limit of insurance or layer), there still in the market failure must control. Government policies and actions should be based on clear objectives, and will improve the efficiency of allocation.
  • Number of policy guidelines has emerged. For example, policy actions designed to relations between the different risks to assist in developing one type of equipment should have hands of farmers, should be improved information sharing and policy objectives should be specific goals , for efficient and least developed countries distorted.

What is the nature and magnitude of risk exposure in agriculture?

Output and input prices to farmers, are exposed to risks associated with production, and the risk of non-farm income sources. Is there anything more relevant than others? What is the relation between them? How does variability when individual or aggregate level, measured separately? How are risks perceived by these manufacturers?

What is the importance of risk-related agricultural policy measures?

Agricultural policies that either there is a risk or to reduce the burden on the family farm income to reduce risk by reducing the results are looking for. Based on information from a database analysis of OECD public sector, the World Trade Organization commitments, domestic support and other OECDs Information Overview of the risk work - OECD countries and selected emerging economies provides measures related.

An on-going project on Risk Management in Agriculture
The following components are part of this ongoing project:

  • Risk management in agriculture a thematic review
  • Agricultural risk management strategies and policies at the level of analysis
  • Risk and price volatility of the overall model Exogenous analysis
  • A conference taking place last trimester of 2010 to analyze the work to date.

Monday, November 23, 2009

The Importance of Agriculture-II


Agriculture sector not only contributes to new products, industrial sector growth market , also contributed food supply and other new content for sector growth, taxation, Official for other departments to invest surplus and spent provide foreign currency. First in agriculture is to provide enough food to contribute work in the industrial sector.

Lewis from the balance of economic growth mode , we know that if one, in modern demand for food for better able to capture with the modern sector of the economy provided was to, a large amount of money modern sector to import food to feed wastes and reduce labor capital accumulation. This is the concept in practice, is one productivity of the agricultural sector may provide new . Investable surplus agricultural sector offers! and tax revenue cost of other areas . Excess supply of labor in the bargaining power of labor least developed countries in reducing. Therefore, their salaries are assumed to be constant. As the agriculture sector for the delivery of modern . Area, agricultural productivity. (Mpl membrane growth) sector will increase. Some surplus, the surplus for reinvestment owners will use in agriculture . Area, driving fast forward MPL. In this situation , TPPL, labor force increased productivity will benefit , new equipment, due to further strengthen the remaining owners. Express forward investment.

Another contribution is tax revenue. Increase in agricultural productivity that . Sector resources for other areas . If productive use of resources, accerlated effect can be! new labor resources, new materials and food is supplied. Not only increase food production in labor population growth also contributed to the modern sector feed.

The demand of food can be defined as below:

D = P + nG D:the rate of demand of food
P: rate of population growth
G: rate of real income growth
n: income elasticity of demand for agri.

Demand for agricultural products Product Reference income elasticity sweet. Product higher (0.6 or higher), at least compared to developed countries (0.2-0.3) HDCs. Thus, modern sector labor and income to increase with the resulting in high demand in agriculture . Products, agriculture and labor power. Sector to increase more land will be free, and tax payment government. One example is Japan in the last 20 years, Japanese government from direct production of 80% land tax revenue, its about 12-22% will come from agriculture. Only 2-3% in non-Department of Agriculture. Department.

Government can help increase government revenues increase in social investment programs and other educational standards to help economic development. To contribute to a growing market increase in industrial production of new products . Agricultural labor force as the actual income . Sector growth, but also for consumption, and provide better market industrial sector. Agriculture39s contribution. Department supply of foreign exchange. Clearly, growth in exports of primary products in least developed countries, the first phase. With agricultural productivity . Additional areas to expand their products will be exported to earn more foreign exchange. In the first phase as , small industrial sector production, quality is not good due to lack of new high-tech. And equipment. Therefore, the state depends on export-oriented agriculture will depend on only. Department. Provide public funds in exchange for foreign currency can invest in society and new equipment purchases in the modern sector. For agriculture amount. Region is very important for economic development. Government at least a majority of developed countries , only focus on the industrial sector expanded for neglect of agriculture. Department. It produced a lot of problems due to lack of foreign currency as , inadequate food supply. Therefore, at least these two areas developed countries should take.

AGRICULTURE

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE:

  • Two thirds of the population working in agriculture the main business of life.

  • About three in agriculture income population of India, who live in rural areas the main source of three quarters are quarters.

  • Agriculture provides not only food but clothing, sugar, vegetable oil, jute and tobacco manufacturing industry as the raw materials are.

  • Agriculture not only an important business people, and life, culture and customs is a way. Indias customs and festivals, most observations and agricultural weather, activities and products are consistent.

MAIN CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MAHESHWARAM AGRICULTURE:

  • Because a large population, Maheshwaram Given depends on agriculture.

  • Depends mainly on farming Maheshwaram rain. Total agricultural area, and still dependent on monsoon rains set. In the rain - fed areas, agriculture is unstable and less productive.

  • About one third of total agricultural land area accounting for arable land is irrigated. In irrigated areas, agricultural production and prosperity.

  • Geographical conditions of a year in agricultural crops are suitable for cultivation.

  • Favorable geographical conditions, Maheshwaram true farmers to grow crops, food (eg rice, millet, Bazra red, regardless of gram and vegetables), and (such as cotton and Castor) cash crops.

THE PROBLEMS OF MAHESHWARAM AGRICULTURE:
  1. Uncertainty rainfall,
  2. Jhumming or Shifting type of Cultivation
  3. Illiterate farming community,
  4. Improper manuring and low application of fertilisers,
  5. Non-mechanised and out-dated farm implements,
  6. Lack of proper marketing system.

Sunday, November 22, 2009

'The days of cheap food are over'

We seem to be facing a global food crisis.


We have a global food crisis that has begun with both national and global trends are moving towards. I would say that the world is developing an international emergency. African countries that are facing food shortages, look at the situation. The World Food Program grain species are used, but now they are being paid. You can not eat money.


Why has this happened?


For a number of reasons. High price of petroleum products and higher prices of agricultural inputs for other products are forced to turn prime agricultural land. For example, farmers in the U.S. and Europe are growing wheat instead of corn for livestock and animal feed. In India, farmers on their agricultural land for ethanol crops are growing. The degraded land should be restricted. I protest in the country for the prime minister of fuel being used is growing.


Foodgrain production is coming down even in India.


India faces many problems. Our land is hungry and thirsty. This lack of nutritional variety, but our policies have supported only nitrogen.

Another major issue is the need for government laboratories outside the country started clay soil and its proposal for a health card farmers can spread to every district test. Only state that has invested so far in Gujarat. We also focus on water and on providing better irrigation facilities is required.


You have been stressing the need to improve irrigation facilities.


We especially to the importance of irrigation in states like Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, which should have the same crop area. But jowar, millet and other drought tolerant crop varieties for food production should also be encouraged. We are currently importing pulses and oilseeds at very high prices. Thats why I feel the farmers in drought areas in need of support, especially from the expansion is finished with advice.


For there must be synergy between research and public policy. In India, policies are skewed in favor of urban consumers. European Union court that the biggest all farmers, related to the European Union common agricultural policy one spends the time to look at. We in India have woken up only when a disaster there. -1960 Fast during the L 48 P 10 million tons of grain imported under the program. We hope that this crisis of the 21st century will lead to an evergreen revolution.


Is part of the problem declining investments in agriculture?


It declined for many years: The result is the current crisis. During the sixth five year plan more than 12% of funds were earmarked for irrigation. And agriculture sector grew by an unprecedented 10%. Compare the current 2%.


Experts point to climate change as also playing havoc with farmers.


Uncertain weather is playing havoc. Agriculture has become the world's riskiest businesses. Farmers face more frequent droughts and floods more often do. For the convenience of the bus does not conflict with the climate change.


But farmers have, over the centuries, had to contend with drought and floods...


There is a difference between past and present. Today, human induced climate change and fossil fuel is due to excessive water.


Lack of data on the type of world food stocks quote, I must say that 2007 show that we have nearly 400 million tonnes, as against 760 million tonnes two years ago for FAO figures. 40% of the world food stocks have come down.


Four countries are going to immediately affect China, India, Brazil and Kenya are, because in these countries in the worlds biggest consumer of wheat and rice grains are.


As early as , how one degree centigrade increase in temperature affected the production of wheat in Punjab and Haryana, a letter was published. It meant a period of one week crop cycle low and cook for his entire process.


One that I want to emphasize that food security is important to humans, but its just as important for animals and livestock. We animals, the worlds largest number of goats and buffaloes. They need food as well.


This is all very well that 15-20% of the population that has highlighted a high purchasing power. But food and water security in the entire population is important.


How will climate change impact rice and wheat?


Rice with high optimization. You go in and below sea level in states such as Himachal Pradesh can do more. Wheat crop is more sensitive. As a result of global warming and melting ice, with India and so could see the river flood plains. For the entire area with deep water or floating rice development plan should be ready now. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, Thailand and parts of it is also trying out.

We have now entered the wheat harvest season.


Yes, for the next few weeks are going to be important. While the Food Corporation of India to cash poor farmers sell their wheat and take basis, rich farmers will wait and see how developed values. Both national and international wheat procurement price should be adjusted on the basis of price. Of course, the Government to ensure food security for all schemes, including the ICDS and other such schemes. We need to create a National Food Security Board, whose members cut all political lines. Forty million farmers has been relieved of their debt burden. But now we need to make them eligible for institutional credit. We also have a smart card that they receive subsidized fertilizer and seeds should be allowed.


How are farmers reacting to contract farming?


Should not share their land with farmers. What they need to start doing instead of water management, better go to the barn and culture, and insect-proofing. Contract farming could work only if it benefits both the buyer and farmer. One in each state to set up a contract farming requires Council. A strict code of ethics as contract farming and after picking up a can. It still has not.


How is the situation in India going to unravel in the coming years?


The Government has come with a concrete action plan. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) has a plan to increase all the necessary information will look into various production must prepare. For example, jatropha and sugarcane for fuel should be extended only on waste and degraded land can be. China is forbidden anything except bread and butter food growing land.


The second thing I want to stress that, in future, governments around the world in their own countries are banning exports of food. It just will not be available. Today, we buy the wheat as the minimum price for farmers are paid Rs 1,000, Rs 2,000 for imported wheat, but we're paying. A day may come soon when imported food stops. We must be prepared for such a situation.


It is very clear to me that the days of cheap food are over, just as the days of cheap oil has.


What kind of contingency plans will our government have to come up with?


We code a drought, flood code and need to come with a good weather code. I put it before the Agriculture Minister. He came up with a plan is needed very soon. Food safety is important for granaries, seed reserves are important for crop protection, and flood situation in an appropriate place to be accidental destruction to ensure a minimum should have a plan. The plan only one piece of paper, but it directly to a farmer who has lost his main crop comes with a second plan should help the next crop should be what kind does not mean.

Agriculture in india

PART-I
India is a country in all its fascinating contrasts and striking features is that it leaves is a fascinating one with beholds! Agriculture is not only India but also the people of the country major businesses is one of the most important economic sectors. Almost two thirds of India population depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Much as 43% of the land area as is used for agricultural purposes. Although there India GDP contribution of agriculture declined steadily due to industrialization and other reasons may be, it still in socio economic development of India plays an important role. In India the concept of sustainable agriculture on the climate thousands of years of cultivation with special knowledge was based. But with the arrival of Britain, was in a shambles. But the Green Revolution and other measures to increase productivity, India did it again.


Indian agriculture depends on monsoon as how they will determine crop. Agriculture in India, most of the responsibilities by the State Department is central rather than out. In addition, state government, many institutions and is based on agriculture in economic activity for rural India Agriculture India companies are performing. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body in agriculture and allied sectors. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Bank is an institution working in the exciting field of agriculture is based on economic activity in rural India. Globalization and the country agriculture sector faces in India is changing and agricultural sector growth has been a fast rate. Economy, agriculture in India is becoming more open and modern technology being used is the maximum so that more and more people can benefit from the region. Private players have also been interested in land acquisition and farm with modern equipment and facilities.


Post independent India has benefited a lot from the Green Revolution. In the 1970s there was significant increase in wheat production. Maximum of five years focused on the development of agriculture and animal husbandary plans.


India has gained from its agricultural activities. India cashew, coconut, tea, ginger, milk, turmeric, etc. India is the world largest producer of fruit production is about 10% share and this is the first position in the production of banana and sapota.


Punjab region into the model for wheat on Earth is one of the most fertile regions. Haryana to produce food in the other India is the largest contributor. In India, though only 30% average yield of 50% average yield is highest in the world. In India, inadequate or inefficient finance and agricultural marketing, low productivity, illiteracy, social, economic backwardness and modern agricultural methods, etc. Small land holdings to adopt is the result of factors such as inadequate services. In the past few decades many farmers committed suicide because of indebtedness and crop failures have sometimes.

PART-II

In India, nearly two thirds of agricultural land task force is a means of livelihood. It has always been Indias most important economic sector. In the 1970s, Indias wheat production has risen dramatically in the country saw the beginning of the Green Revolution. Increase in agricultural production since independence to bring about the additional area under cultivation, expansion of irrigation facilities, better seeds, better techniques, brought by the use of water management, and plant protection.

India on agricultural imports in the early 1960s, planners believe that Indias growing population dependence, as well as national independence, as concerns about security and political stability, self abundance in food production is necessary. This perception led to a program of agricultural reform is called Green Revolution, for a public distribution system and price supports for farmers. For the increase in food grain production needed to yield more focused information, all the Green Revolution: better seeds, more fertilizer, improved irrigation increased, and farmers is a result of education efforts. Although increased irrigation has helped to reduce agricultural year as a result of the monsoon vagaries of fluctuations in production for years, it has not ended the ups and downs.

Indias non-traditional crops, such as summer mung (a variety of lentils, pulse part of the family) was slowly importance, soybean, groundnut, sunflower and used. Step increase in the non supply at reasonable prices, chemical fertilizers have been ensured. Quality control laboratories in the country there are 53 fertilizer. Indian agricultural production for economic growth, Indias central government realize the importance of agricultural development has played an active role in all aspects. Planning, centralized and plan priorities, policies, and resource allocation is decided at central level. Food and price policy is decided by the Central Government. Thus, although agriculture in India is the constitutional responsibility of state but the Central Government, after the policy formulation and in providing financial resources for agriculture plays an important role. Expansion in crop production, increasing yields on land already so use some type of agriculture is almost entirely coming from.

monsoon, however, determined that the crop, enough to average or poor in any year in the Indian agriculture sector plays an important role. Governments policy objectives in the early 1990s, one exploring ways to reduce dependence on monsoon was. A major role for the Department of Agriculture crop, based on seasonal growth and import policies to play in developing technology to increase soil fertility .

Special schemes for there credit available for farmers. Government supports the efforts of many farmers and their families are doing. Education and newspapers throughout the country today for farmers and rural land to provide basic food is recognized as an important player has reached. Technology cooperation in agriculture in India with improvising is tractor, fertilizer and farming assistance using a new way. Barren land and guidelines for funding the research are being allocated. Rabi and Kharif crops and model schemes suitable for exhibitions to promote sales and promote exports of local products allocated. Are: rainfed agriculture, banking credit, farmer education major initiative by the Government for the life of the rural agricultural land are developed. Aim at maintaining the ecological balance of agriculture has seen. Crop protection, agricultural production, promotion marketing for top tertiary market after Indias Agriculture Departments plans are some of.

It is understood that one farmers life goes beyond tilling and harvest crops. Their standard of living for SSI will increase its earnings by uplifted who is to be located. Other facilities like shelter, drainage system, education and alternative employment must secure their future.

Thursday, November 19, 2009

India: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural Development


BACKGROUND


Although agriculture in India, Avenue of Stars of GDP only 21% of contribution, its importance in the country, economic, social and political structure of the Avenue of Stars, but still exceeds the target. Still at home in the rural areas of India 72, Avenue of Stars in the percentage of 1.1 billion people, a large number of people are poor. Poor depend on rain - fed rural agriculture and their livelihoods from the forest most vulnerable food production in India, 20 th Century Green Revolution era, 70 to enable the country achieve self - sufficiency in food crops and avoid the threat of famine in the rapid growth Avenue of Stars.

Low bureaucratic accountability and inefficient use of public funds.


Despite the large expenditure in rural development, inefficient use of public money and less accountability, their impact on poverty, with an upper limit of centralized bureaucracy. In 1992, India amended its constitution to democratically elected local government to rural villages under three levels of governments create. However, power, money transfer, and these local bodies is going slowly activists, in part because of political vested interests. Programs for poor peoples right to shape or contribute to the local governments are not hold accountable.


20 th century, 70 years in labor intensive agricultural growth in rural areas, the decline in food prices and rural poverty reduction coupled with increased demand for rural labor force of 80 years to see durable, but very slow, in the 20th century, 90 years agricultural growth and rural poverty reduction in 1999/00 was 26.3%. But since then, agricultural growth slowdown has become a major concern. India, Avenue of Stars in rice production in China, and Vietnam and Indonesia on the Avenue of Stars, the third in the half. With sugarcane, potato and tea, the same applies to most other agricultural products.


Government of India attaches great importance poverty reduction and agricultural productivity, increase a top priority. However, decision makers adventure, we turn our attention from the current subsidies - should be based on system is not sustainable, one skilled in the order, is to create internationally competitive agricultural sector and a solid foundation for diversity.



ISSUES AND CHALLENGES


Slow Down in Agricultural and Rural Non-Farm Growth:


Both well as poor as more 'prosperous Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh states recently a Green Revolution slow down agricultural growth rate has been observed. Some of the revival of growth factors are an obstacle:



  • Poor composition of public expenditures:

Productivity of public spending on agricultural subsidies that agricultural research and extension, rural infrastructure investments as well as increase investment in the form of, and crowd out health and education of rural people. In 1999/2000, the agricultural subsidies amount to 3 percent of GDP and 7 times more public investment in the sector.



  • Over-regulation of domestic agricultural trade:

Although economic and trade reforms in the 1990s helped to improve incentive structures, high costs have increased regulation of domestic trade, price risk and uncertainty, sector less competitive.



  • Government interventions in labor, land, and credit markets:

More rapid growth in rural non-agricultural sector for government intervention in factor markets - labor, is limited by land and credit - and production markets, such enterprises as small reservations.

Inadequate infrastructure and services in rural areas.



Weak Framework for Sustainable Water Management and Irrigation:


  • Inequitable allocation of water:

Several states have incentives, policy, regulatory and water scarcity, sustainable peace, and institutional framework for equal allocation.


  • Deteriorating irrigation infrastructure:

Public expenditure is spread over several unfinished projects in irrigation. Moreover, as the existing infrastructure has rapidly deteriorated and maintenance work are given low priority.



Inadequate Access to Land and Finance:


  • Stringent land regulations discourage rural investments:

While land distribution is low, are skewed land policy and tenure rules (restrictions or renting land or other uses, including a ban on transferring security increase) the use of landless and discouraging rural investments to reduce unexpected effects has had.



  • Computerization of land records has brought to light institutional weaknesses:

State government initiatives and increased transaction costs to computerize land records have reduced transparency, but also the institutional weakness that has brought light.


  • Rural poor have little access to credit:

Although India has an extensive network of rural financial institutions, many poor rural areas, remain excluded due to formal financial institutions are inefficiencies, weak regulatory framework, high transaction costs and risks associated with lending to agriculture.



Weak Natural Resources Management:


One quarter of India’s population depends on forests for at least part of their livelihoods.



  • Protection of forests from a purely ineffective approach:

India experience shows that a complete protection of natural resources management approach does not work effectively to reduce poverty and little.



  • Forest resources for poor communities the right of:

weak resource rights and community forest areas, an inefficient legal framework for the management of and participation is faced with economic incentives and market access for the poor.



Weak delivery of basic services in rural areas:


  • Low bureaucratic accountability and inefficient use of public funds:

Despite the large expenditure in rural development, inefficient use of public money and less accountability, their impact on poverty, with an upper limit of centralized bureaucracy. In 1992, India amended its constitution to democratically elected local government to rural villages under three levels of governments create. However, power, money transfer, and these local bodies is going slowly activists, in part because of political vested interests. Programs for poor peoples right to shape or contribute to the local governments are not hold accountable.



PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE WORLD BANK SUPPORT


1. Enhancing agricultural productivity, competitiveness, and rural growth:
Enhancing productivity:


Create more productive, internationally competitive and diversified agricultural sector to increase the productivity of public investment in expenditure away from subsidies will need to change. Second, the need to remove restrictions on domestic private business to improve the investment environment and market opportunities are expanding. Third, agricultural research and extension system needs to use technology to improve productivity must increase to strengthen. Across India with focus on various circumstances cold states the importance of strategy shows a strong regional bias.


  • Improving Water Resource and Irrigation/Drainage Management:

For the increase in multi-regional competition for water service to irrigation water policies and water resources management unbundle highlights the need to prepare. Other key priorities include: (i) modernizing irrigation and drainage departments and other agencies, participation of farmers in irrigation management, integrated, (ii) improve cost recovery; (iii) the highest returns with rationalizing public expenditure plans with priority for completion, and (iv) operation and maintenance of stability of investment allocated sufficient resources.


  • Strengthening rural non-farm sector growth:

Growing domestic and global market value is more income, which for high value products open new opportunities for agricultural diversification in the demand for fresh and processed agricultural products are fueling (eg horticulture, livestock), agricultural processing and related services. Government and private sector participation and for direct interference competition to create a conducive environment needs to change its role from overregulation and broadly agribusiness, rural non-farm sector has increased. Includes improving the rural investment climate control removal business, labor regulations and tax system price (including the adoption of rationalizing the tax system), and access to credit and improving key infrastructure (roads, electricity, ports, markets like).



2. Improving access to assets and sustainable natural resource use:


  • Balancing poverty reduction and conservation priorities:

Conservation and poverty reduction in the search for winning combinations win for sustainable natural resource management will be crucial. The policy and institutional barriers to addressing the legal rights involved devolving resources and responsibilities transferred to local communities.


  • Improving access to land:

States for the growing consensus, land reform policy, particularly land tenancy policy and land administration system can create. That tenancy restrictions in this regard, useful lessons can offer. During long term, a more holistic approach to governance policies, rules and institutions in the country to ensure security of tenure to reduce costs, and religion is necessary to ensure stability and order.


  • Improving access to rural finance:

Regional rural banks and by increasing the regulatory supervision of rural credit cooperatives need to improve the performance, government control and ownership is clear, and debt collection and use of land as collateral for strengthening the legal framework. The micro finance institutions in rural areas for the development will include creating a conducive environment.



3. Strengthening institutions for the poor and promoting rural livelihood:


  • Promoting Community-Based Rural Development:

State Governments efforts in scaling the livelihood and community driven development approach will be important to build social capital in the poorest regions as well as to expand savings mobilization to promote productive investment, income generating opportunities and sustainable natural resource management. Direct self help support groups, village committees, user associations, savings and credit groups and others initial push access to higher levels and new economic opportunities for action can offer organizations. In addition, social mobilization and empowerment, especially women's groups for collective action through increased capacity, providing communities with greater voice "and the private sector, markets and bargaining power in dealing with financial services.


  • Strengthening Accountability for Service Delivery:

As decentralization and local governments continued efforts to provide basic service is given more importance, the establishment of accountability mechanisms is important. Budget and planning capacity of local governments through participation to identify local priorities and needs strengthening. This, in turn, improve the rural investment climate, would facilitate private sector participation, employment opportunities and create linkages between agriculture and non agriculture sectors.






Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Agricultural Equipment

Agricultural equipment, which equipment group based open ditch, breaking, spray and soil is fertile. Plows: agricultural equipment, has opened a divide in the earth for this purpose, is made of a blade, grate, dumping, beads, bed, Helm, and Mancera, which is used on cuts and ground level, one solution set, pieces of draft, and to hold organized.

There are several types of plows, but the most famous are: the dump solutions fence, razor blades and disk disk solution built with open landfill deep concave surface - solution to wrinkles, dirt ends made of topsoil depth solution. Harrow is an agricultural tool, the purpose of partial tears Land is part of or approved the solution has one design for the structure, wood and metal teeth and coupling may be involved in a tractor. Ready to spray agricultural spraying equipment, a liquid tank, high pressure pump, cover, mouth, water tank and pressure valve, belt, hose, spray nozzle wrench and any liquid insecticides, fungicides and herbicides to use in place include . Manuel to return to spray spray, which in the oral cavity and the local mask in the nose to prevent this material, he sprayed a particularly strong smell from injury, was discharged. No tillage agriculture plantation owners put a team on the seed seedbed without. Agricultural fertilizers and fertilizer distribution component, a team of three chief aims: runny or fertilizer tanks, fertilizers and fertilizer dealers collapse of the tube. Packaging: This is an agricultural equipment design, packaging or packaging herbal feed grain straw or other's package (also known as package or alpaca).


Agriculture tools:

Tools can be used for agricultural land use, farming equipment, take sand, weeding, to destroy this country, open ditches, or transportation of fertilizer materials. Agricultural equipment, which specify a wide variety of Barretones: Yes Liver semiplanta steel plant and the metal finish, length of treatment. Fork: The situation is that there is a small wheel and loading freight and agricultural land, whether the sand, clay, fertilizers.Hoe is used: the blade equipped - with metal tip of the lower edge are Tip is shaped device, is to eliminate land for this purpose. They are aimed at cutting tool, there's a long stainless steel sheet and cones, a wooden handle is attached. Dig:, it is preferably a metal plate steel for agricultural land use, Can be woven or so wide, there is a sharp and long-term deal with the low metal timber destroyed. Peak: a steel tool, a rectangular wooden or metal blades down and with the processing of one side and land on which stood as a rectangular blade is designed to have ended. Rake: or to pay or use a thin horizontal metal depends on the structure of teeth bribe of fat seed. Bath: The metal tubes and containers of water, there's many on both ends of a small hole in a round room, used for irrigation of plants. Transplanter: a small, sharp metal edges of the blades and small wooden spoon set. Done to remove the seeds.

Machinery, tools and equipment, differences with differences in their experiment is that the system is responsible for cleaning the soil, while helping the team on the field is what should happen in the country are responsible for getting rid of, for excavation equipment to help bring, and cultivation of new crops. Machinery, equipment and tools, the importance of the importance of agriculture: agricultural machinery pulled, chopped or soil removal, cleaning and planting is done. Agricultural equipment, agricultural land use, to end the mourning ground solution for spraying plants. Open ditches for agricultural equipment, soil load, remove the roots, the weeds, soil excavation and is used in eradication spraying water plant

Contributions of science and technology to agriculture


Agricultural science and technology, China is slowly advanced world levels. Contribution rate for advances in science and technology, agriculture's contribution has reached 42%. Department of Agricultural Science and Technology breakthroughs are important in biological technology, latest technology and basic research. China and implementation through monoploid in anther culture and seed culture cells and tissues of plants cultivated in the investigations in the first place worldwide.


Two systems, hybrid seed corn hybrid rice in the study of culture, multi-crop carefully is fine and clean technology, etc. are coming to or have reached, advanced levels. Who to investigate the use of hybrid soybean has been. Since 1949 Chinese scientists have made agricultural worth of plants on 40 species, nearly 5000 new varieties and new clusters of high performance, excellent quality and high resistance to four or five times and allowed to renew major crop varieties. Each time you update, usually from 10 to 30% increases in production. 4820 kg per hectare yield of grain crops in China has reached.


Chinese scientist Yuan Longping, father of international hybrid rice "as is known, China's grain harvest in late twentieth century history marked a milestone, with its achievements in the field of hybrid rice . yuan in 2003 Longping, the hybrid system in rice more than double the issues raised, to achieve its two pilot sites superhíbrido, 12.112 kg of rice per hectare and have paid 12.261 kilograms. Currently, large areas of rice are superhíbrido . Longping year 2008 after the yuan has fixed a target, more than 13.500 kg of rice per hectare yield superhíbrido. Department has planned and executed a series of scientific and technological development that rural areas, including important scientific Xinghuo tree, good crops, and promoting economic development benefits of Liaoyuan concerned. Thank you for these efforts, many scientific advances have come from rural areas and farmers have entered homes, in promoting scientific and technical qualities of farmers Excellent contribute.

Gene technology more agriculture is not equal to benefits

Producers, processors and organic food in Berlin Germany, one class of Schrodinger Distributors Association, a report shows that gene technology applications in agriculture in addition to spending there, and did not lead to an increase in profits submitted. Factors, various types of dry seeds of higher values of these additional costs, and billions of dollars of investment needed to increase the amount allowed contaminated crop varieties genetic separation, there is no economic basis. Benefits of genetically modified crop varieties to cover these costs being charged. Cultivation of genetically modified varieties very few multinational companies, particularly Monsanto, will not only beneficial to ensure that its more profitable patents.

Felix Sipulinci zuLöwenstein, chairman of a section of Schrodinger list: "The application of genetic engineering in agriculture does not affect the interests of farmers or consumers, but their sale only. No legal protection before other arguments, these corporate responsibility is important in such activities. It would not be apparent under harsh environmental damage and economic analysis is not certain why the results of the new varieties genetically modified organisms. We need a system that needs to happen is the responsibility of all and permits in the European Union reform process. expiry of the European Commission against Ilse Aigner Development, Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and to allow more GM maize varieties is Christoph. Then which serve as an independent critic and expert is doing research report total pollution damage cost of an unauthorized genetically modified varieties, as well as the separation of post production, economic viability of this type of training of the dollar amount of several billions.

Some studies indicates that farmers were found in the specific context of heavy investment and very special circumstances. Besides, "he continued," gene technology is too expensive seeds, which cost a lot more expensive so fast, traditional crops, performance did not improve. "Stefan Rosser Frost (in the field of gene technology) and organic food producers Association President Company, said:" Our customers need, but not natural and genetically modified product, we as a company, we need to get one in the field of gene technology is not enough to demand .. regulatory framework, which also leads to small and medium enterprises to take risks and application of gene technology, including cost, even if They oppose "

Contributions of science and technology to agriculture:

Agricultural science and technology, China is slowly advanced world levels. Contribution rate for advances in science and technology, agriculture's contribution has reached 42%. Department of Agricultural Science and Technology breakthroughs are important in biological technology, latest technology and basic research. China and implementation through monoploid in anther culture and seed culture cells and tissues of plants cultivated in the investigations in the first place worldwide. Two systems, hybrid seed corn hybrid rice in the study of culture, multi-crop carefully is fine and clean technology, etc. are coming to or have reached, advanced levels. Who to investigate the use of hybrid soybean has been. Since 1949 Chinese scientists have made agricultural worth of plants on 40 species, nearly 5000 new varieties and new clusters of high performance, excellent quality and high resistance to four or five times and allowed to renew major crop varieties. Each time you update, usually from 10 to 30% increases in production. 4820 kg per hectare yield of grain crops in China has reached.

Chinese scientist Yuan Longping, father of international hybrid rice "as is known, China's grain harvest in late twentieth century history marked a milestone, with its achievements in the field of hybrid rice . yuan in 2003 Longping, the hybrid system in rice more than double the issues raised, to achieve its two pilot sites superhíbrido, 12.112 kg of rice per hectare and have paid 12.261 kilograms. Currently, large areas of rice are superhíbrido . Longping year 2008 after the yuan has fixed a target, more than 13.500 kg of rice per hectare yield superhíbrido. Department has planned and executed a series of scientific and technological development that rural areas, including important scientific Xinghuo tree, good crops, and promoting economic development benefits of Liaoyuan concerned.

Thank you for these efforts, many scientific advances have come from rural areas and farmers have entered homes, in promoting scientific and technical qualities of farmers Excellent contribute.